Go with creativity to perform an eloquent way of working on three dimensions by using sculpting clay. Therefore, you can visualize the abstract image to be real by processing plastic or earthy substances into some works of art.
There are unlimited possibilities to express your ideas using various sculpting techniques. But you must remember that few methods only work well with some specific substances. Therefore, choose malleable clay since you can bend or carve the material that is easy to turn into fantastic sculptures.
There are various natural and synthetic materials to create any art of shaping. Thus, the clay itself will not be the only moldable substance. You can find out similar features from firm matters like stones, woods, metals, steels, bronzes, and others. Fit the selected piece with the proper technique to establish a more satisfying figure.
Here, you will learn more about several classifications of sculpting matters. The characteristics may differ from one to another. They also bring some benefits and drawbacks for consideration. Identify each detail and choose the best type for your sculpture figures.
Checking the Proper Sculpting Clay
- Checking the Proper Sculpting Clay
- Features of Clay
- Sculpting Clay Classifications
- Dough Clay
- Paper Clay
- Ceramic Clay
- Ball Clay
- Fire Clay
- Kaolin Clay
- Earthenware Clay
- Stoneware Clay
- Oil-Based Clay
- Polymer Clay
- Epoxy Clay
- Water-Based Clay
- Air-Dry Clay
- Clay Sculpture Techniques
- A Guide to Shape with Sculpting Clay for Beginners
- Steps to Follow
Although you have overwhelming options of materials, there is only one type to be your best sculpting clay. Then, it should be initially checked before starting to create a solid shape of the sculpture. It is to ensure that the substance has a proper qualification for carving.
The first step to undergo a suitability test is by shaping the sculpting clay into a cylindrical space. The size is about 10 cm long and 3 cm in diameter. Then, curve the cylinder to know whether some cracks exist or not. Also, this way will show its elasticity, dryness condition, and smooth texture.
Features of Clay
The sculpting clay should have several criteria to be a proper material for shaping a work of art. It mostly features a smooth appearance. The visual condition must be free of rocks, gravels, sands, and other small matters.
Since the clay is going to be formed, the substance must be easy to turn into a curve shape. Importantly, it should offer heat resistance. Even more, providing the required thickness becomes the other characters to be suitable for sculpting.
Sculpting Clay Classifications
All types of sculpting clay have different characteristics and require distinctive methods to mold a three-dimensional piece. Both plastic and earthy substances are divided into several groups. Each material brings its strength and infirmity to consider.
Playdough is homemade sculpting clay that has simple ingredients. Prepare cornstarch, flour, cream of tartar, water, and oil and combine them well to create a stiff mixture. They can be dyed in various hues by using food color. Then, you can use this type for modeling a sculpture.
The dough clay has an affordable price and kid-friendly use. Unfortunately, creating sculptures from this material will last for a limited time. The solid form can break or snap after drying. Therefore, try to preserve the structure by baking the sculpting clay in the oven.
A combination of fine particles with cellulose fiber will create great paper clay. This additional substance will elevate the strength of the mixture. Then, it provides easy wet-to-dry and wet-to-wet joins. Therefore, do not be afraid of keeping the density while shaping a sculpture with this material.
The paper sculpting clay allows the fragments to have self-support to refrain from breakdown. Its flat shapes will not make the sculpture misdirect. It is also possible to form light figures with this material.
Furthermore, if you want to add details with another sculpting clay type, let the existing sculpture completely dry to hold more elements. Play with this extraordinary substance to shape any fine art.
A ceramic is from heated sculpting clay that gives an indelible form. It consists of additional substances instead of this soil composition. The main ingredients are the decomposed granite-like rocks, earthen elements, water, and powders.
Then, ceramics need to fire in a kiln with high degrees of heat for maturation. The mature objects can function as cooking appliances, home decorations, and others. Their surfaces are often covered with glazes, waterproof paint-like matters. Moreover, the varied groups include stoneware, earthenware, fire, kaolin, and ball.
Ball clay consists of more plastic with some mineral contaminants. It is essential for ceramics and other works of art.
However, to create a perfect sculpture, mix this material with the other types to avoid deflating while frying or drying. Thus, combining several substances will improve the feature and feasibility.
Fire sculpting clay highly contains iron with fewer mineral impurities. That’s why a speckle will be found on its appearance. This material elevates the roughness and maturation at extreme heat. Therefore, it is commonly applied in the bodies of stoneware.
The best material to mold porcelain is the kaolin. It is rich in mineral purity in light color shade. Due to less plasticity, this type does not become the suitable sculpting clay for a beginner.
Besides, the dough is more difficult to shape than others. Use ball clay in the mixture to improve the feasibility. You can diminish the firing heat by adding different sculpting substances.
The initial type of sculpting clay is the earthenware. It becomes famous for its extraordinary features. Since plastic is the dominant material, you might turn the dough handily into various shapes.
Moreover, terracotta, which means fired-earth, becomes a popular type of earthenware. This sticky substance will obtain the maximum asperity at a lower heat degree. It happens because the contents include iron and other mineral contaminants.
The earthenware sculpting clay is available in different hues. In humid conditions, the color ranges are yellow, red, orange, and gray. After being heated, its coloration changes into white or medium-gray. The types of fire and mineral contents affect the varied shades.
Similar to earthenware, the stoneware requires a high temperature to achieve its maturation. After being heated, the products have an excellent chip resistance and strength for cooking or baking. Its permanent structure is suitable for creating landscaping sculptures.
Therefore, stoneware objects resist any extreme cold and hot weather. The sculptures are also heavier than the earthenware type. They provide a dark tone, textured appearance, and superior density.
An oil-based sculpting material is from a mixture of clay minerals, waxes, and oils. It will stay moist even though being uncovered in dry condition. The objects differ from ceramics so that they do not require a firing technique.
Therefore, the sculpting clay is capable of being shaped with different consistencies that depend on high or low temperatures because of the oil content. Moreover, the heat degrees may affect its various thicknesses. Its pliable feature allows sculptors to shape freely without breaking.
The oil-based dough is reusable, so it can be easy to move and bend. Additionally, choose sulfur-free clay to create sculpture with silicone molds. You will easily find some varieties that do not contain sulfuric acid elements.
Furthermore, oil-based sculpting clay is the best choice for shaping sculptures with small details. This material will not be sticky to hands and any surfaces. Importantly, you have as much time as possible to accomplish the project without worrying about the dry texture.
Unfortunately, oil-based clay costs a fortune. Then, the uncovered dough will be less malleable, although it can be softened with body temperature.
Plasticine is a type of sculpting material to form any figure with a modeling technique. The substance comes from a combination of clay, oil, and cohesive substance like cement or tar. Then, this variant has a smooth texture that cannot harden while exposing it to the air.
Also, it offers a softer texture than wax or water-based material. Plasticine sculpting clay has varied colors. You might blend two or more shades to create a new hue.
The Plasticine-type clay mostly contains sulfur elements, so it cannot work with silicone molding. Its pliable features are easy to bend and embellish with many details. However, this substance is not heat-resistant. Thus, the solid form will turn into an oily mass.
Polymer clay features smooth and malleable textures that can harden during the firing process. The sculptures will not dry until they are heated in the oven. Its main ingredients include polyvinyl chloride, lubricants, stabilizer, plasticizer, and colorful elements.
A simple form of the polymer can form a solid vinyl rather than being untreated. It is because the uncured dough only contains a PVC pigment and filler. This sculpting clay works best for kids and advanced-level sculptors.
If children use this clay for sculpting, they should be supervised by the parents to avoid the choking hazard. Also, beware of burning the polymer since it creates harmful fumes that cause irritation and breathing problem.
Epoxy clay comes with rainbow hues, although the colors are not as many as the polymer. However, both types have a different process of hardening. The epoxide compound has self-hardening, whereas the polymeric substance should be heated in the oven.
Epoxy sculpting clay consists of two distinct elements. They are resin and curing agent. Do not combine them to keep the dough smooth and soft. The procedure of mixing both components will create an exothermic response that elevates the maturing process.
Furthermore, epoxy clay mostly creates very hard sculptures. They work best for an aquarium and outdoor structures. Then, applying a UV protective coating will preserve the surface when exposed to direct sunlight.
Water-based sculpting clay is famous for its fast-drying feature. As it gets the name, the material requires water to form the sculptures. The objects will dry soon if the liquid evaporates.
Small works of art mostly use these cheap clay. Tiny sculptures will not take a longer time to finish the process before the dough dries. Then, you can store the remaining material for later use by keeping it in the ziplock bag.
Additionally, some benefits of using water-based clay are handy, smooth, and pliable features. Also, keeping carefully in an airtight bag will make it workable for a longer time. You might maintain the shape by using a kiln-fired device.
However, the clay’s drawbacks are its shrinkage, easy-to-dry element, monthly maintenance for long-term storage, and loss of moisture. Therefore, always keep the dough covered and sealed for your later works. Only use this material for a quick and small sculpture instead of long projects.
Air-dry sculpting clay belongs to water-based material that needs no heat for curing. The air will make it dry by itself without being exposed to a high temperature in the oven or kiln-fired. Then, a modeling technique uses this type to get self-drying for about a couple of hours or weeks.
The modeling sculptures have a different time to have a complete dry based on their density. The thicker you build the project, the longer time you’ll need. Thankfully, it does not need any specific tools to shape an object. A knife and rolling pins are simple devices to use during the process.
Besides, apply colorful inks, paints, or marker pens to dye the artwork. Use a rubber stamp is another superb way to give deep textures and impressive touches to the masterpiece. Air-dry sculpting clay is the best option in crafts and artworks with little details.
Clay Sculpture Techniques
After you determine the numerous types of sculpting clay with their characteristics, it is essential to understand several methods for shaping the sculptures. Casting, carving, modeling, and assembling are the basis of the projects.
Modeling techniques help very smooth and pliable sculpting clay to turn into an artistic figure. After forming and adding detailed structures on the object, the next step is firing at high heat degrees.
The drying process will create a permanent model. Likewise, the wax becomes another material that applies the same method to make artificial living things.
As the name means, the assembling technique creates a single sculpture by attaching various sculpting clay types, materials, and object details.
This process allows sculptors to mix different substances to assemble a beautiful work of art. The simple method almost needs no tools to transform an idea into a meaningful project.
Casting is an accretive process to create sculptures from metal. The metallic contents should melt before shaping. Pour the dissolved material into the mold and let it harden. For instance, bronze and steel can function to make tools, weapons, and decorative objects.
Carving is the perfect choice to create sculptures from hard materials like wood and stone. But, the technique requires hewing and cutting any parts to turn into a work of art.
The initial process is eliminating the outer side of the sculpting clay by using some special tools until it establishes the final figure. This method includes wood, rock, ivory, shell, and semi-extravagant stone carving.
Some specialized tools for carving clay are scrappers, shapers, sponges, ribs, and so on. For unfired types, several texture devices include rubbing plates, stamps, mats, and rollers. Thus, utilizing the proper aids can make the task more effective and delectable.
A Guide to Shape with Sculpting Clay for Beginners
For beginners, visualizing a three-dimensional project seems to be a little bit challenge. They need a guide to break down the clay sculpture process into simple ways. It also helps to determine where to begin.
Initially, start picking the suitable sculpting clay. Using several materials is acceptable. After that, apply the best method to process the raw mass into a specific object. Generally, a water-based type is the most appropriate choice for beginners.
Even though water-based clay requires a potter’s wheel for sculpting, it is the simplest hand-building method to form sculptures. You only need some tips to define an idea and improve the technique to obtain incredible artworks.
Steps to Follow
First, conceiving the final object to turn out will be an essential step. Envision a precise idea of how you want the project to be. Therefore, make some sketches of viewpoints and dimensions to consider the main form of the sculpture.
Secondly, test the selected clay to know whether the material is easy to work with or not. Check the condition until you get the right wetness to bend or carve. The smooth texture indicates that the solid mass is useable.
Then, smartly build the shape, although there is not a potter’s wheel. Alternatively, put the sculpting clay on a coil to form the sides. For the remaining process, you can dig out and pinch the material by using forefingers and thumbs.
Remember to avoid overhanging the shapes by starting with a contained form. However, if you are getting the hang of this process, consider using armatures. These metal structures will support the heavy clay. For example, aluminum wire, brass tod, and other weighted supplies can hold it.
Furthermore, keep on observing and practicing to achieve some advanced aspects of your sculpting clay projects. If necessary, you can join courses or local studios to get expert guidance. They will give you some experiences of firing to get permanent objects. Also, it is a big chance to improve hand-building skills.
Finally, shaping any figures with sculpting clay becomes an ancient technique to form some works of art. Moreover, sculptors might use distinct methods to create statues, tools, and weapons. Thus, you can create visual art objects to display in the house, garden, office, and other areas.